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21 November 2005 by our correspondent in Arusha

On November 17, the most notorious defendant at the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR), Colonel Théoneste Bagosora, concluded his 17-day testimony. The former directeur de cabinet at the Rwandan Ministry of Defense shifted responsibility for the April 7, 1994 assassination of the Prime Minister and ten Belgian peacekeepers to UN mission commander General Roméo Dallaire.

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21 November 2005 by Thierry Cruvellier

Convincing some of Rwanda's key leaders in 1994 to admit to their role in the genocide was what the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) did best in the early years. It has rediscovered this talent in recent months. Michel Bagaragaza's still confidential confession is an impressive example. When questioned by investigators, this close relative of the Habyarimana family revealed that the Rwandan president's brother-inlaw is the one who, on the night of April 6, allegedly ordered the assassination of opposition leaders.

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21 November 2005 by Adele Waugaman

"We concluded that genocide has been committed in Darfur, and that the government of Sudan and the Janjaweed militia bear responsibility," then U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell told members of Congress in September 2004. With one word - genocide - Powell catapulted the United States to the forefront of international efforts to end abuses in war-torn western Sudan. "Today we are calling on the United Nations to initiate a full investigation [...] into all violations of international humanitarian law that have occurred in Darfur, with a view to ensuring accountability," he added. Six months later, those statements would compel the U.S. government to allow the UN Security Council to refer the Darfur situation to the International Criminal Court (ICC).

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21 November 2005 by Lucien O. Chauvin

Former Peruvian President Alberto Fujimori surprised supporters and detractors alike in early November, abandoning Japan after nearly five years of self-imposed exile in an effort to return to Peru and seek another presidential term. Instead of returning home to face the charges that have been pending against him in Lima since he resigned by fax from Tokyo on November 19, 2000, Fujimori opted to fly to Santiago, Chile, where he was taken directly to prison pursuant to an extradition request from Peru.

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21 November 2005 by Santiago O’Donnell

Milan Lukic was arrested in Buenos-Aires three months ago. This Bosnian Serb and ex-leader of a paramilitary group in Visegrad has been charged with crimes against humanity by the Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY). In addition to The Hague, he is also wanted in Belgrade and Sarajevo. Now the Argentine courts are wondering to what extent they can let the UN tribunal decide what suits it.

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07 November 2005 by Lucien Chauvin

The retrial of Peru's Maoist Shining Path rebel group entered its second full month with the defense and prosecution spending more time questioning the court than each other. Guzmán's attorney, Manuel Fajardo, spent the first month of the trial objecting to the court, its location on a military base and the generic charge of terrorism. He also continued his fight against the retrial itself, putting forth motions for dismissal based on "double jeopardy," since Guzmán already stood trial on terrorism after his arrest in September 1992 *see IJT-33+. The prosecutor did not stand idly by either.

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07 November 2005 by Thierry Cruvellier

On May 12, 2005, the President of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) discreetly handed down two decisions that illustrate an important difference between the UN tribunal in Arusha and The Hague-based tribunal that is responsible for trying cases of crimes committed in the former Yugoslavia. At the beginning of December 2004 the first motions for early release from persons convicted by the ICTR were brought before Judge Erik Mose. The two motions were filed by men who had pleaded guilty and cooperated with the prosecutor's office on an ongoing basis as informants or witnesses. Both motions were denied.

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07 November 2005 by our correspondent in Arusha

Leading ICTR defendant Colonel Théoneste Bagosora began giving testimony on October 24 for the period leading up to the fateful date of April 6, 1994 - the day the Rwandan genocide began. The former directeur de cabinet in the Defense Ministry denied responsibility for disseminating a "definition of the Tutsi enemy" within the army in 1992. He especially denied being the colonel of the "apocalypse."

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07 November 2005 by HEIKELINA VERRIJN STUART

"By planned and well-thought-out combat operations, create an unbearable situation of total insecurity with no hope of further survival or life for the inhabitants of Srebrenica and Zepa." Such were the instructions of President Radovan Karadzic in March 1995. The "purifying" intention of the directive, later known by the code name of Krivaja 95, is in no doubt. Yet it leaves open the issue of the intention to commit genocide. Legal experts at the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia have been scrutinizing the gap between genocide and ethnic cleansing in an attempt to legally establish the existence of genocide in Srebrenica.

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24 October 2005 by Louis-Martin Rugendo

"Those who say we are in bondage are wrong. They forget the nature of the crimes we committed! They have been lenient with us," says Emmanuel Kamanda with conviction. Assigned to the second category of genocide perpetrators by his sector gacaca, he was sentenced to 12 years in prison. Kamanda has finished serving height and will perform community service to fulfill the remaining four. He is among the hundreds of people we met at a pilot site in the center of the country. They were crushing rocks to build roads.

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